Boyhood is a film like no other in the history of cinema. Filmed over a twelve year period, director Richard Linklater has created one of the finest family dramas in recent memory. Although it is called Boyhood, it’s actually a lengthy divorce story that engulfs four marriages, while two siblings manage to stay normal during ongoing family upheaval.
Ethan Hawke shines as the loveable not-so-deadbeat-dad as does Patricia Arquette, as the imperfect family matriarch who has a penchant for alcoholic husbands. Bad parental choices often destroy kids, but not in this thought provoking film.
The dialogue is clever, devoid of melodrama, yet the message is profound in it’s simplicity. “Sometimes we don’t seize the moment, the moment seizes us.” The line arrives at the end of a film stated by a secondary character and the film concludes without the obligatory climax. Linklater is good at breaking conventional narrative structural format. And yet, it is a perfect movie from the opening frame until the credits roll.
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Since introducing the GH4, Panasonic has become the newest competitor in the Ultra HD scene. With AV enthusiasts increasingly turning towards 4K, we’re taking a look at some of the current players in 4K recording.
Red Epic Dragon
RED is one of the best known brands in the Ultra HD world, and has a reputation as a leading innovator in cinema technology. The newest member of their line up is Red Epic Dragon. Their latest sensor boasts 16.5 stops of dynamic range in addition to its size and resolution. The amount of noise, which has been the chief complaint about the RED line of cameras by cinematographers in the past, has been vastly improved even at 6K RAW. Epic Dragon, of course, comes with all the advantages of other RED cameras such as RED workflow, RED codec, and compatibility with both EF and PL mount lenses, which gives you maximum lens choices.
Quick Spec Overview:
Sensor/Effective Resolution: 19 Megapixel DragonTM(35mm)/6144 x 3160
Dynamic Rage: 16.5+
Recording Modes: 6K RAW (2:1, 2.4:1) 5K RAW (Full Frame, 2:1, 2.4:1 and Anamorphic 2:1) 4.5K RAW (2.4:1) 4K RAW (16:9, HD, 2:1 and Anamorphic 2:1) 3K RAW (16:9, 2:1 and Anamorphic 2:1) 2K RAW (16:9, 2:1 and Anamorphic 2:1) 1080p RGB (16:9) 720p RGB (16:9)
Lens Mount: PL and EF
4K : DPX, TIFF, OpenEXR (RED RAY via optional encoder)
2K : DPX, TIFF, OpenEXR (RED RAY via optional encoder)
Ever since its entrance into the Ultra HD world with PMWF55, Sony has quickly become RED’s major competitor in the field. The latest in their CineAlta line up is F65 which offers recording up to 8K resolution. Like the RED camera, Sony users can take advantage of Sony’s own 4K workflow. It uses CMOS sensor and has a rotary shutter option to overcome the defects of rolling shutter. The sensor also employs an SGamut system which provides wider colour space than a print film to achieve the most natural colour.
Quick Spec Overview:
Sensor: Total 20 Megapixels, 28mm (d)/ 8192 x 2160
Dynamic Rage: 14 Stops
Recording Modes: F65 RAWSQ 16 bit Linear 2.0 Gbps, F65 RAWHFR 16 bit Linear 2.0 Gbps, F65 RAWLite 16 bit Linear 1.20 Gbps, SRHQ HD 12 bit10 bit 4:4:4 880 Mbps, SRSQ HD 10 bit 4:2:2 440 Mbps, SRLite 10 bit 4:2:2 220Mbps
Lens Mount: PL Mount
MPEG2 Long GOP
HD 422 mode: CBR
50 Mbps max
Frame Rates: 23.98p/24p, 25p, 29.97p, 59.94p/60p in most recording mode, 119p/120p in HFR
Dimensions/Weight:12 x 91/8 x 73/4 inches (305 x 227 x 195 mm)/11lb (5Kg)
GoPro Hero3+ Black Edition
GoPro has also dipped into the UltraHD pool with their latest camera Hero3+ Black Edition. Like the rest of GoPro’s products, Hero3+ is more suited to specialized purposes than straight up filmmaking. Hero3+ Black retains all the advantages of GoPro in addition to 4K resolution. It is incredibly light at 74g (20% lighter than its predecessor), comes with waterproof housing, time lapse and burst photo mode, WiFi remote and adhesive mounts to capture your next adventure in Ultra HD.
Dynamic Range: Couldn’t find exact number of stops. But Hero3+ series is said to have a vast improvement in dynamic range compared to the previous series, allowing much more information to be retrieved from the highlight or black area.
Frame Rates: Ranging from 12FPS to 240FPS, availability depends on the resolution. (Only 12FPS available at 4K)
Blackmagic Production Camera 4K
Blackmagic is another new force in camera technology innovation. It has produced a line of high end, cinema quality pocket cameras that have revolutionized the filmmaking process. Blackmagic cameras are extremely versatile; the global shutter eliminates the challenges of rolling shutter, and touchscreen allows for fast metadata inputting. You can also choose between CinemaDNGR RAW and Apple ProRes for delivery to suit the needs of your post-production. The fact that it has a very compact body, yet large high resolution sensor means it can be used for everything including feature film, documentary, indie film and live events.
Quick Spec Overview:
Sensor/Effective Resolution: 21.12mm x 11.88mm (Super 35)/3840 x 2160
Dynamic Range: 12 Stops
Recording Modes: 3840 x 2160 or 1920×1080
Lens Mount: EF or ZE
Delivery Formats: CinemaDNG RAW and Apple ProRes 422 (HQ)TM
Frame Rates: 3840 x 2160p23.98, 3840 x 2160p24, 3840 x 2160p25, 3840 x 2160p29.97, 3840 x 2160p30, 1920 x 1080p23.98, 1920 x 1080p24, 1920 x 1080p25, 1920 x 1080p29.97, 1920 x 1080p30, 1920 x 1080i50, 1920 x 1080i59.94
Dimensions/Weight: 6.54×5.24×4.96 (Inch)/3.75lb
Panasonic Lumix GH4
Mirrorless camera has been gaining more and more attention as the (often times better) alternative to the DSLR amongst digital photography enthusiasts in the recent years. Panasonic is still holding out on the exact release information, but it is expected to come out this winter. It would be interesting to see if DSLR filmmakers are making the switch to mirrorless with the introduction of 4K video recording which can be a real game changer. Mirrorless cameras are very similar to DSLR in terms of their operation, but without the annoyance of a mirror mechanism. It also may attract a lot of young filmmakers who are less bound by the lens choice and looking to purchase their first professional camera.
Quick Spec Overview:
Sensor/Effective Resolution: 17.3 x 13.0 mm(17.20 megapixels)/16.05 megapixels
Dynamic Range: 1⁄3 stop at ISO 200, no number of stops given
Recording Modes: 4K at 100Mbps, 1080P at 200Mbps
Lens Mount: Micro four third
Delivery Formats: MOV (Audio format LPCM), MP4 (Audio format LPCM /AAC 2ch), AVCHD (Audio format: Dolby Digital 2ch)
Frame Rates: 30/25/24 FPS at 4K, 60/50/30/25/24fps at 1080P Dimensions/Weight: 132.9 x 93.4 x 83.9mm / 5.23 x 3.68 x 3.30 in (excluding protrusions)/Approx. 480g / 16.93 oz (Body only)
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Imagine you are out for dinner with two of your close friends. The conversation is candid, and flows from one topic to the next. One of your friends pulls out their phone, and begins recording the conversation.
Does the dynamic change?
Do you speak as freely as you did prior to being recorded?
Documentary film aims to capture a subject or topic with some measure of objectivity. But the simple act of turning a camera on a person can change their behaviour. The premise of Cinema Verité is to film a scene in as natural a state as possible – as though the camera and director were merely flies on a wall.
The following video was made by documentary student Stan Huang. Below the video, read about his experience filming the exercise.
Can you explain the exercise that you were given? Rafi Spivak,our editing instructor, was teaching us about cinema verité and he wanted us to go out and film someone doing something. I thought it was interesting because you don’t usually just go to a shop or restaurant and shoot what people are doing.
Why did you decide to shoot at this particular restaurant? For their kitchen, they have an open window for people to watch. Every I time go have noodles there, there are kids just hopping up in the window watching them making noodles, so I thought that would be a cool action to shoot.
What was it like to shoot the exercise? We only had one day to shoot this project. So my project partner Adam and I decided to go there, and I went in and said we’re making a documentary about local food scenes.
Luckily the owner was there and he was cooking. I asked if I could interview him but he was a bit shy so he said you can just interview the waiters. So Adam did that and we got footage of that. Then I went into the kitchen with a slider and just shot whatever I could.
Did you run into any challenges or anything unexpected while you were filming? Yes actually, that was the first time I used a slider with a DSLR and I learned a lot in terms of how to set it up. And space was very limited in the kitchen so we had to deal with that.
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Each term our documentary students are given a unique assignment: to create a 3 to 4 minute biographical film. As instructor Steve Rosenberg puts it, if they are to spend their lives pointing a camera at others, it is essential to understand what that feels like. We spoke with current student Amanda Lo about the process for her student film Not/Enough.
Where did the idea come from for your student film?
Amanda: Over the past year or so I’d been talking to friends of mine and just getting some inspiration from them in terms of being in different places in our lives….and how we can get really discouraged, and how in these times we can get caught up in these negative thoughts and words.
We’re the first people who hear the words coming out of our mouths when we talk. And that struck a chord with me. I’m telling myself these things and they’re becoming ingrained in me and I’ve got to start replacing what I’m saying about myself with something better so that I’m not carrying these things around. As I was writing everything for the bio, I remembered that and thought maybe I could do something around it for the bio.
Did you feel any hesitation in revealing your personal insecurities?
Amanda: Yeah definitely. In the beginning I was thinking that I just wanted to make something light, and maybe funny and entertaining. And then we were doing a couple of exercises and I realized that other people in the class were opening up and being vulnerable in front of the camera. And actually I think that’s what inspired me, or gave me the extra courage to make my bio about me, and be more open in it.
Also, I have a background in theatre. So when I realized that I couldn’t make this into a big production, I chose to do something simpler and more theatrical, but with a big impact.
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I am obsessed with the eccentric director Ulrich Seidl. He is Austria’s equivalent to the blatantly creepy American filmmaker Todd Solondz. The Paradise Trilogy, a portrait of three women related by blood, is deliberately slow and includes ten-minute static scenes with mundane dialogue. But every moment feels honest, absorbing and occasionally funny. Paradise Hope, set in a militant Austrian diet camp is anything but hopeful, as a chubby adolescent girl falls for a middle aged doctor. Paradise Love features an overweight sexually ravenous Austrian cougar on vacation in Kenya. Paradise Faith, the most riveting of the three, tells the story of a dowdy middle-aged female evangelist who has romantic sexual feelings for Christ.
The exquisite cinematography is minimalist and the masterful art direction, especially in the diet camp, has a cold war East European sensibility. These critically acclaimed films are polarizing, as Seidl is an acquired taste, so if you are expecting an uplifting experience, with a moralistic tale, look elsewhere. Seidl’s bleak and intimate portrait of three women is not searching for solutions to misplaced morals. However, it delivers unvarnished honesty and therein lies it’s beauty.
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There is a lot to consider when deciding to go to film school. Because it is a creative art, some may even argue that filmmaking can’t be taught in a classroom, and is better learned on your own. As an independent film school we’re all for indie productions and a DIY ethos. But, we also believe film school is the best way to sharpen your skills and produce portfolio quality work.
Why? First and foremost: creativity breeds creativity. We’re familiar with the lone mad genius trope. But the reality is, we can all benefit from receiving creative feedback – particularly when it comes from experienced industry professionals. Filmmaking is an ever evolving art, and the industry thrives on innovative and unique ideas. Working in a creative environment with practicing and emerging filmmakers is the best way to explore and push the boundaries of your filmmaking vision.
Which brings us to the next point. We know you’re passionate about filmmaking and determined to pursue your dream project. Yet setting aside time to do so can often be a challenge. Attending film school gives you an opportunity to explore your ideas, learn new techniques, and hone your craft.Although it might seem counterintuitive, deadlines are useful because they increase productivity and time management. Instead of being relegated to the “when I have time,” pile attending film school allows you to focus on just one thing: your personal development as a filmmaker.
It also allows you to explore the different technical aspects of filmmaking. From preproduction through to postproduction, there are countless processes involved in making a film. While many film industry professionals specialize in one area such as directing or cinematography, understanding the basic processes behind each facet is essential to your development as a filmmaker.
And of course, collaborating with fellow students on a variety of film projects gives you on set experience, and can lead to lasting creative partnerships.
Perhaps most importantly, attending film school gives you the opportunity to build a strong and diverse portfolio of work. Your show reel is your calling card – from entrylevel positions to funding an independent project, it’s your key to the industry.
As userfriendly cameras, accessible editing software and online tutorials become increasingly popular, learning about filmmaking on your own is much easier than it used to be. And like any field, much of the learning process is trial and error. Delving into film school expedites the learning curve so that you can realize your potential, and your filmmaking vision, that much sooner.
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You’ve probably heard Vancouver referred to as Hollywood North. In 2012 alone, the film industry contributed close to a billion dollars to the economy – with a good balance of international and domestic productions. Every year, hundreds of films, TV shows, and documentaries are shot here.
Today, the city is ranked as the third largest production center for film and TV in North America. So yes, Vancouver’s earned its reputation, but why exactly is the film scene so happening here?
Vancouver is home to most of B.C.’s production and post-production activities, and has the capacity to support the biggest Hollywood movies in casting, set-building, location filming, and audio and special effects. It also has some of North America’s most expansive and sophisticated studio spaces and facilities, and numerous FX and sound stages.
Major studios include:
Lions Gate Studios
Vancouver Film Studios
The Bridge Studios
Location, location, location!
A mere two hour flight from LA, both Vancouver and LA share a time zone eliminating issues like operating hours, accessibility, and travel time for actors and key crew. Vancouver’s mild climate allows for year round shooting. Consistent cloud cover naturally diffuses sunlight making it easier for technicians to add additional light. And of course, with so many productions shot here, there is a strong community of skilled crews, technicians and creative experts to draw on.
Vancouverites Just Love Film
The film festival scene in Vancouver is alive with local and international fare. Vancouver International Film Festival (VIFF) is one of the largest film festivals in North America, with over 500 screenings held over a three week period.
It also features a forum with high profile speakers – 2013 featured Vince Gilligan, the creator of Breaking Bad, and Walter Murch, Oscar nominated master editor of Apocalypse Now and The Godfather.
Other major film festivals include:
DOXA – Documentary Film Festival
VLAFF – Vancouver Latin American Film Festival
VQFF – Vancouver Queer Film Festival
EUFF – European Union Film Festival
With a dynamic film scene, Hollywood and indie productions, and everything in between, Vancouver is a great place to be for emerging and professional filmmakers.
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One of the most daunting aspects of indie filmmaking is casting. You might have a great script and crew – but your cast will make or break your film.
A casting director acts as a bridge between actor and director, and their expertise should not be underestimated. But you don’t have a budget for one. Now what?
Before The Audition
Actors need to work with the character’s raw material. This can include the script sample (sides) that the actor performs during the audition, character bios, and story synopses if available. A well-prepared actor will absorb this information resulting in an informed and truthful performance.
Remember that when a director assumes the role of casting director, it’s important to create an environment where the actor can flourish. You are a facilitator and collaborator not a gatekeeper; enable their full potential rather than intimidate.
Choosing The Scene
Choosing an audition scene is a key decision. It should be a high stakes, dialogue driven, one-on-one interaction. Actors love tension because it gives them the best opportunity to showcase their abilities.
Dialogue is the easiest way to observe the choices the actor is making. Action-based scenes are harder to manage without a set and camera movement. One-on-one moments or monologues allow the character to be the point of focus.
A simple setup is best – use a single camera on a tripod to capture the audition. Make sure the actor knows how the shot is framed so they can freely use movement without worrying about being out of frame.
If you already have an actor cast, use them as your reader. If not, the writer or producer will work. Just be sure the reader you do choose is sitting out of frame. It’s also important that your reader has an understanding of the script and context of the scene being read. The director should be solely focused on observing performances.
On audition day, your preparation will pay off. When the actor enters, introduce yourself and ask if they have any questions. Show them their mark, have them slate (say their name and role they’re reading for) into the camera and let the audition begin!
The Audition: Expect The Unexpected
This is where it starts to get interesting…
Why are they playing this character with a lisp?
This character would never be that harsh!
And really…do they need to be doing a headstand?
Directors often experience moments of terror when actors make unexpected choices. While it may look like the actor is just trying to stand out, any choices they make are ones they believe in.
Greet seemingly odd choices with an open mind. They give you the chance to gauge the actor’s range and ability to take direction. If a character is being played too harshly, see how they adjust to a request for a tender approach. Explain why the character would act in this way so the actor can rationalize the adjustment. Then run the scene again.
If you want to dig deeper with a promising actor or if you’re on the fence, a great exercise to try is interviewing or just chatting with the actor ‘in character’. Actors who have come prepared will relish the opportunity to explore their character. Improv exercises like this can be as valuable a tool as the scene being read.
We’ve only touched on a few aspects of casting. If you give actors the best opportunity to demonstrate their abilities and inform your vision for the film, you’ve made the most of the casting process.
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Alfonso Cuarón won the BAFTA for best director for his latest work Gravity a proud achievement for any film director. In light of this event, we are taking look at the cinematic styles that closely defines his career and led up to this moment.
Cuarón’s career started in Mexico City where he was a student of philosophy and filmmaking. There, he met his future collaborator Emmanuel Lubezki who’d become his most frequent collaborator. In fact, Lubezki was the cinematographer of all of Cuarón’s directorial works excluding only Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
Cuarón’s works are quite varied in terms of subject. His first feature was a quirky, dark comedy about AIDS (Solo Con Tu Pareja). Since then, his films have given us a quixotic story of a young girl in boarding school, a Dickensian tale of love and jealousy, a coming of age road trip, the fantastical world of wizardry, a dystopian tale of humanity’s collapse, and a realistic space fantasy.
In all of these, Cuarón has proved himself to be a consummate storyteller whether it is his original story or adaptation of a well-known piece of literature. His superb ability to define characters clearly, and create atmosphere and setting is greatly helped by his visual style.
Cuarón is quite well known for his love of long takes that cover multiple actions and often multiple locations. This technique was used quite extensively in Children of Men and Gravity. The use of long takes gives both films a sense of realism to a setting that lacks it a dystopian future and space fantasy.
Another one of Cuarón’s favourites is a handheld shot that obsessively follows the character and their gaze. This puts the audience in the position of the character or their companion and allows them to be more involved rather than remain an observer. Take for instance Theo walking through the ruins in Children of Men, or Luisa sensually dancing towards the camera as she holds its gaze, provocatively inviting the audience in, in Y Tu Mama Tambien.
Cuarón is also a big fan of symbolic closeups and nondidactic montages. The airplane Finn plays with in Great Expectations, our casual gaze across his paintings on the dingy motel room wall, and Cacho carefully stepping on his row of paper cones in Solo Con Tu Pareja are some of examples.
The realism of long takes and handheld shots are often contrasted with dreamlike lighting and soft focus as seen in the attic of Sara Crewe in the Little Princess, the pool scene in Y Tu Mama Tambien and the majority of Great Expectations.
Cuarón also loves to juxtapose wide, long shots with dangerously intimate close ups, further defining the character and their experiences in multiple perspectives.
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There is a dedicated team of on set film crew members behind every moment of movie magic. From lights, to sound, to art direction, each department is essential in its own way. But what role do production assistants and others in entry level film positions play?
They may not get the same accolades, but their dedication is no less admirable. Especially when it comes to some of the odd jobs they are asked to do on set.
The Dog Whisperer
Heard from an on set sound professional with decades of experience in the industry. Even though he is now a well respected sound person and an instructor, he had a humble start just like everyone else. One of the first films sets he worked on as a sound PA had an on location shoot in a suburban, residential area. On this particular shoot the sound department faced an unusual challenge. The majority of households had large dogs in their yards that barked through the entire shooting process, rendering most of the location sound unusable. On the second day, the sound PA brought his bicycle on set. Armed with sausage links provided by the production department, he toured the neighbourhood throughout the shoot, hurling links at the barking dogs to keep them quiet – a solution to keep both the production and the dogs happy.
The Apple Stand
Unfortunately this is a fairly familiar tale for grips, especially in low budget productions. A nighttime scene was being shot during the day. The problem was the building had several big windows that had to be blacked out completely; no easy task with a limited amount of equipment. The grip department used everything they had and even had to throw on furniture pads and secure them with duct tape. After all that effort and time a sliver of an opening was still letting in daylight, and ruining the illusion of night. One grip armed himself with a flag and stepped on a stack of apple boxes, found the offending sliver and covered it with the flag. However, before he could call over another grip to help secure the flag in place the production, which by then was already anxious about time, started rolling the camera. The grip had no choice but to hold the flag over his head on his tippy toes on top of the wobbly apple boxes until the scene was completed.
The Spit Catcher
Vancouver is a beautiful city and we often see TV shows shot on the streets of Gastown. This episode included a shot of a character spitting gum on the ground as she was talking. The shot, of course, required multiple angles and takes. The production couldn’t let the actress spit the gum out on to the actual street – out of respect for the city as well as for continuity. So a PA had to kneel in front of the actress, just out of frame, holding a brown paper bag for her to spit the gum in. If that wasn’t quite bad enough, the actress’s aim wasn’t exactly perfect either. The PA actually had to pick a piece of chewed gum off the ground and put it in the bag multiple times, all while being showered with saliva.
The Wardrobe Malfunction Attendant
Some odd jobs on set may not seem so bad. Occasionally, movies are required to target certain rating by the executives. This particular one was to be rated PG13, which meant a woman’s breasts couldn’t be fully featured on screen. The hard part was it had several sex scenes, which required the actors to be topless. In order to make sure the actress’s breasts were never exposed on screen, the 1st AD had to sit right next to the actress, barely out of frame, and stare at her breasts the whole time. His job that day was to yell cut every time he saw her nipples.
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