What Are LED Lights? And How to Use Them on Set - InFocus Film School

AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF LED LIGHTS AND THE REVOLUTION OF LIGHTING.

What Are LED Lights? And How to Use Them on Set - InFocus Film School

Written by Devan Scott

There’s a revolution going on in the world of lighting! For decades, film lighting has involved using some combination of halogen, incandescent, HMI, and fluorescent sources. Nowadays, all of this is changing and fast: LEDs, or Light Emitting Diodes, are radically altering how we shoot our movies. They’re safer, cooler, use less energy, and open up a whole ton of exciting new possibilities for how we light our movies. 

How to Use LED Lights on Set

Arri Skypanels in the set of Blade Runner 2049

What does it mean for you, the indie filmmaker? Let’s start by looking at the types of LED fixtures commonly available on the market today and how you can use them to make your films look wonderful.

Types Of LED Fixtures

Panels

How to Use LED Lights - Panels

Widespread and affordable, an LED panel is an array of individual LEDs that form a single soft source. These are available from dozens of brands from affordable prosumer models to high-end Arri Skypanels. Newer generations of LED panels, such as those by LiteMat, are ultra-thin and flexible, allowing you to easily place large and soft LED sources in small spaces.

Tubes

Tubes - How to Use LED in Film

A row of LEDs placed inside a diffusion tube, these resemble fluorescent tubes. Common brands include Quasar and Astera. 

Fresnels

Fresnels - How to Use LED Lights

For years, one of the drawbacks of LED lighting was the lack of directional fresnel-style options, but that has changed. LED fresnels – which generate a focused beam of light – are now commonplace, and they run significantly cooler than their Halogen or HMI predecessors. 

Practicals

Practical Lights - How to Use LED LightsMany LED manufacturers have added practical replacement bulbs to their lineups, allowing you to replace standard 25-100w bulbs with fully remote-controlled RGB equivalents. 

Modular Fixtures

Aputure 300D - How to Use LED Lights

Fixtures such as the Aputure 300D are designed with flexibility in mind – they can act as softboxes, directional sources, or floodlights.

5 Reasons to Use LED Lights

1. Do away with gels by using RGB LEDs!

Traditional Light Fixtures - How to Use LED Lights

Traditional light fixtures with colour gels.

 

Traditional light fixtures generally default to one of two colours: tungsten and daylight. Tungsten sources look like standard ‘warm’ household bulbs; daylight sources are designed to match, as the name would imply, the sun’s colour temperature. Any other colour of lighting had to be achieved with multicoloured gels, and, in addition to being expensive, have always been something of a headache on small sets. 

RGB LED Tubes - How to Use LED Lights

RGB LED Tubes

 

Many modern LED lights, known as RGB LEDs, are able to display just about any colour on the visual spectrum without the aid of gels. As a result, the same lighting unit can now be used to match the colour of lighting in just about any situation: need a daylight figure that can be used to imitate candlelight at night? The same light can now do both without the need of any modifiers. Need to light the foreground and background of a scene differently? Have you just had a last-minute burst of inspiration that’s convinced you to use green backlight? Now, all you need to do is flip the switch on an app. No hassle.

 

2. App Control means instant wireless results

 

Speaking of apps, many of these new fixtures can now be controlled remotely via your phone, and the possibilities are endless. For example, you can program Astera’s line of LED tubes in a multiple of ways.  You can simulate everything from firelight to raves to lightning storms and much more. Complex lighting setups that would have taken days just a decade ago can now be designed and implemented in minutes by a small crew.

 

“Shock” BTS - How to Light With LED

“Shock” BTS

3. Hide Miniature LEDs to augment your practical sources

Practical sources – light sources that are visible onscreen such as lamps and screens – are perhaps my favourite way to motivate lighting. They’re a great way to unite your production design and lighting to create a believable onscreen world where the lighting feels like a natural part of the scene. However, you must augment these sources in some way. 60 watt household bulbs and dim laptop screens don’t exactly put out much in the way of light when it comes to a camera’s sensor! 

La Cartographe - How to Use LED Lights

Shot from LA Cartographe w/ laptop extended

Small, battery-powered LED panels and tubes have, luckily, made this process much easier in recent years. In the past, to light a scene light the one above, I might have hid a fixture off-camera behind the table. This would have punched up the lighting on the main character, but it would sacrifice believability; the audience can, whether they realize it or not, subconsciously tell that something is off about a light source that’s significantly brighter and farther away passing for a small screen inches from our subject’s face. 

Instead, we lit this scene with a small LED tube placed on the keyboard – it more than quadrupled the amount of light coming from the ‘screen’, and the result was a shot that felt far more believable than it would have otherwise.

4. Light with “Windows”

"Fingertips" BTS vs on-screen

“Fingertips” BTS vs on-screen

When lighting daylight interiors on location, space has always been of great concern. Folks often ask me whether I prefer to bounce or diffuse light to augment windows. To their surprise, my answer has nothing to do with aesthetics. I generally use whichever I can feasibly fit in the space I’m shooting. If one is trying to fool an audience into believing your fake lighting is in fact real sunlight, that light needs to be rather large and as far away as possible. The mechanics of bouncing fixtures off of fabrics or diffusing lights through grids is hugely limiting in this way; these riggings can take up a huge amount of valuable space on small sets. 

This, too, has shifted thanks to thin, flexible, and large sources like LiteMat’s series of ultra-thin LED panels. They are, essentially, a wall of light; they can be affixed to a wall or a ceiling, accomplishing what a standard diffusion setup can without the need of any extra riggings. You can use LED to dramatically decrease the footprint of your soft sources in this way.

Read more about lighting with windows.

5. Battery Power Means Lighting Anywhere

Outdoor lighting with battery-powered LED

Power has always been a major issue on outdoor location shoots. Want to light a night exterior? Better bring a generator. A big one. At least 3,000 watts worth, and even that’s cutting it close.

In contrast, it’s now possible to light sizeable outdoor nighttime exteriors exlusively with battery-powered sources. Even the 420-watt Arri Skypanel S60 can be run with two V-Mount batteries, and the implications for everything from low-budget narrative to location documentary shoots are endless. 

In conclusion, the digital revolution in lighting has had much the same effect as the digital revolution in cameras: democratization of the production process. These new technologies have made it possible for independent filmmakers to achieve ever-more ambitious visuals with ever-smaller budgets and crews. They’ve also made it possible for alternative and unique visual styles to flourish; just as we’re no longer bound to traditional studio fixtures, we’re no longer bound to traditional lighting methodologies.  

 

By Felicity Flesher

 

Coinciding with the celebration of InFocus Film School’s 10th anniversary, the Vancouver school is launching a brand-new Advanced Documentary Program for experienced filmmakers. Beginning in Fall 2021, the diploma program will nurture creative professionals through three terms from story incubation to finalized product.

In January 2010, InFocus opened its doors to the public with only one program offering: documentary. When InFocus Executive Director Steven Rosenberg founded the school, he thought, “There has never been an easier time to make documentaries, all you need is a camera and editing software. And of course, you need mentorship to know how to tease a story out of the ideas that you have.”

For the first few years, the school was a small albeit burgeoning non-profit, but over time, students emerged with great talent supported by committed instructors dedicated to helping their students get their foot in the industry door. Alumni have gone on to pursue prosperous careers in the entertainment industry garnering awards for their independent features at prestigious film festivals across the globe and joining the teams of big budget productions in Vancouver, one of the top film centres across the world.

As the school expanded to become Vancouver’s top cinematic arts training institution, its original documentary program was absorbed into its film production program. What started as one part-time program is now seven full-time programs with an ever-increasing reach. Now Rosenberg is hoping to cultivate that talent with even greater ideas and productions.

In line with InFocus’s emphasis on superior hands-on learning, the new Advanced Documentary Program will focus on documentary filmmaking and career skills beyond theory and basics.

“You might not come to learn how to turn on a camera because, at the end of the day, we have a lot of amazing technicians and we can put a budget behind those people. If you come to our program with a feature idea and access to a really great story and archival footage, you can incubate that story in the first six months,” Rosenberg says. “You start with a story treatment, then a sizzle reel, and then you go in front of a pitch panel. We bring in television and feature documentary filmmakers to evaluate: does this story have legs to make it? Then, in the last six months, we pair you up with a shooter from our production program and a budget and you shoot and edit a pilot or long-form documentary that will eventually become a feature.”

InFocus Film School Advanced Documentary Program

The pitch panel will be an essential part of the program. Students will pitch their projects to a select group of high-level producers and studio representatives who will help steer their ideas in the right direction and tailor their projects for the right distribution channels. With students emerging from the program with a fully realized project, multiple pitches, and a wealth of industry connections, they will be ready to approach studios’ growing demand for new content.

 

“With all the products out there, you would think the market would be saturated, but good stories hook the audience.”

 

Other aspects of the program will focus on short documentaries, cinema verité, biographical films, lifestyle series, and more, showcasing the range of artistic and commercial possibilities that documentary offers and providing students with a variety of marketable projects to take into the world.

The school is seeking experienced, dedicated students to act as a sort of cadre of artists in residence.

“You’ve got your skills down as a storyteller, you’ve been selected, now we want you to make something,” Rosenberg explains, “We need to have students that will give blood for their projects because to take a film from an idea to screen, it’s a lot of process. It’s thousands of decisions. And it’s a quite a journey unto itself.”

Become A Documentary Filmmaker at InFocus Film School

Applicants should be emerging or mid-career creative professionals with relevant post-secondary education or professional work as demonstrated by their application, personal statements, eligibility interview, and portfolio of their creative work. Rosenberg emphasizes that the ideal candidate for the program doesn’t necessarily have to have a documentary background but should have a “body of work in life with great samples they can put in writing or photography. We just want to see who that person is and that they’ve got a slate of doable ideas.”

Not only does the program offer a unique experience for the individual storyteller, Rosenberg says, “It’s a network experience. When you have a project, it’s in your head. And then you need someone to coach you through or cheer you on to finish it. There are a million reasons to give up, but when you have a very tight structure, that forces you to develop projects. It’s important for peer-to-peer support, so people in your group, they become your lifelong collaborators.”

Leading the new program is acclaimed award-winning documentary filmmaker Julia Ivanova. Her string of accomplishments include Best Canadian Feature at Hot Docs, the Colin Low Best Canadian Documentary Award at DOXA and being screened at Sundance, IDFA, and the Chicago and LA film festivals. In 2019, Ivanova was honoured with the Focus On Retrospective by Hot Docs.

“Julia has been part of the school since day one and students rave about her,” Rosenberg says.

In addition, InFocus prides itself on its nearly 40 accomplished part-time professors who divide their time between instruction and professional industry work. Similarly, the mentors involved in the new Advanced Documentary Program will be highly statured members of the Canadian film industry.

InFocus Film School Advanced Documentary Program

What does the future hold for Rosenberg and InFocus? “I would like to see the kind of project that comes out of Sundance. I’d love to see us be an established studio where we’re able to produce projects as well as mentor students and be able to hire them as well. It’s like picking a baseball team. But you get to see them play for a year and see everybody on their good days and on their bad days. Then you can pick those people and have them as part of your studio.”

InFocus seeks to represent a diverse student body and offer opportunities to traditionally underserved communities. All of InFocus Film School’s programs are open to international students and loan options and scholarship opportunities may be available for qualified individuals.

Learn more about InFocus’s Advanced Documentary Program: https://infocusfilmschool.com/documentary-program/